FY 2021 Housing Needs Assessment Sections:

Executive Summary Table of Contents Homeownership Rental Housing Home Energy & Transportation Housing Insecurity Housing Stock Income & Labor Demographics How Ohio Compares COVID-19

Income and Labor

This section gives information on Ohio's economic indicators, such as poverty rates, income levels and unemployment rates. These provide important context on how Ohioans are faring financially, and how that may impact their ability to afford housing.


Section Highlights

  • In 2018 the median household income in Ohio was a little over $56,000 per year. Adjusted for inflation, the median has grown steadily since 2011 and is now above pre-recession levels (2007).
  • The poverty rate in Ohio fell from 2011 to 2018. The percentage of households living below the federal poverty level was highest in the urban cores of Ohio's cities; more than double the state average (30% compared to 14%).
  • In 2018 Black Ohioans were nearly three times likelier to live in poverty than white Ohioans (29% versus 11%). However this poverty gap (18 points) is the smallest it's been since 2006, having steadily fallen since peaking in 2012.
  • Ohio's children are more likely than adults to live in poverty; 19% of children under 18 and 22% of children under 5 are living in households below the federal poverty level, compared to 14% overall.
  • By the end of 2019, the unemployment rate in Ohio had dropped to its lowest level (4%) since 2001, having peaked at 11% at the height of the Great Recession.

Jump to: Household Income | Poverty | Child Poverty | Labor Force Participation Rate | Unemployment Rate


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Household Income



Household Income Distribution by Tenure

Source: IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota (based on 2018 data)

Median Household Income

Source: Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Income Gap Ratio, 80th & 20th Percentiles

Source: American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B19080

Income Gap Ratio, White & Black Householders

Source: American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B19013A & B19013B



Median Household Income

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Change in Median Household Income

Source: Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Income Gap Ratio, 80th & 20th Percentiles

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Table B19080



Poverty



Poverty Rates for the United States & Ohio

Source: Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Poverty Rate Gap, Black & White

Source: American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B17001A and B17001B




Poverty Rate by Region

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Poverty Rate

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Poverty Rate by Typology

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B17001; 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Poverty Rate Gap, Black & White, by Region

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Tables B17001A and B17001B

Poverty Rate Gap, Black & White

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Tables B17001A and B17001B

Liquid Asset Poverty Rate

Source: 2020 Prosperity Now Scorecard (based on 2010–2014 data)



Child Poverty


Child Poverty Rates for the U.S. & Ohio by Age

Source: Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau


Child Poverty Rate by Region

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Child Poverty Rate

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Child Poverty Rate by Age & Typology

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B17001; 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau



Labor Force Participation Rate


Monthly Labor Force Participation Rate, U.S. & Ohio

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics


Labor Force Participation Rate by Region

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (based on 2019 annual averages); 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables S1810 & S1811

Labor Force Participation Rate

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables S1810 & S1811



Unemployment Rate


Monthly Unemployment Rates for the U.S. & Ohio

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics


Unemployment Rate by Region

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (based on 2019 annual averages)

Unemployment Rate

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (based on 2019 annual averages)


Downloadable Tables

Related Reports


Notes

Inflationary adjustments are based on the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U), from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, for "all items less shelter."

Poverty status can only be determined for individuals in households and therefore the denominator excludes individuals living in group quarters such as college dormitories, correctional facilities and nursing homes.

Poverty rates and gaps are suppressed in counties in which the estimated Black population for whom poverty can be determined is less than 100.

The liquid asset poverty rate is the share of households without sufficient liquid assets to subsist at the federal poverty level for three months in the absence of income. Liquid assets are assets than can be readily turned into cash, such as interest earnings held in banks, commodities, foreign currencies, and equity in stocks, bonds, mututal funds, IRA, Keogh, 401(k) and other savings accounts. Assets that cannot be readily turned into cash, such as real estate, vehicles and art collections, are considered non-liquid asets.

Ohio Regions are defined by the Ohio Development Services Agency at the county level.

Typologies are defined at the census tract level in the OHFA 2018–2019 USR Opportunity Index by the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity at The Ohio State University. They are based on a combination of road network density, housing density, population density and age of housing.


Data Sources