FY 2021 Housing Needs Assessment Sections:

Executive Summary Table of Contents Homeownership Rental Housing Home Energy & Transportation Housing Insecurity Housing Stock Income & Labor Demographics How Ohio Compares COVID-19

Housing Stock

This section focuses on the type, age and quality of housing within Ohio, including vacancy rates and the risk of lead-based paint hazard. Vacancy rates are indicative of housing market distress, whole older, inadequate homes present serious health challenges for Ohio's families, particularly those with young children.


Section Highlights

  • Since 2010 Ohio's housing stock has grown by 2.1%, even outpacing population growth over the same period (+1.3%). Much of this growth happened in suburban areas, while Ohio's urban cores have seen housing stock decline (–1.4%).
  • At the end of 2019, homeowner and rental vacancy rates–1.1% and 6.8%, respectively–were near their lowest levels on record, indicating a very tight housing market.
  • Ohio's housing stock is relatively old. One-in-four housing units in Ohio were built before 1950 (27%), when the first laws banning lead-based paint were enacted, including 58% of homes in the urban cores of Ohio's cities.
  • One in four renters in Ohio (25%) experienced severe housing problems, as defined by HUD, including incomplete kitchen and plumbing facilities, severe overcrowding and severe housing cost burden.
  • Black and Hispanic renters are more likely (32% and 31% respectively) to experience severe housing problems than their white counterparts (23%).

Jump to: Change in Housing Stock | Structure Type | Housing Vacancy | Lead Hazard | Severe Housing Problems


Please be advised that the following maps and data visualizations are provided for informational purposes only. Load times will vary depending on your internet connection speed. To download the data for a specific map or data visualization, first click in the white space of the graphic, click the "Download" button below and then click "Data" in the menu that pops up. You may also access most of the data through the downloadable tables in Excel posted lower down on the page.



Change in Housing Stock


Change in Housing Stock in the United States & Ohio

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Change in Population & Housing Stock

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau


Change in Housing Stock by Region

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Change in Housing Stock

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Change in Housing Stock by Typology

Source: American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25001



Structure Type


Housing Units by Structure Type & Region

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Table B25024



Single-Family Detached Homes as Share of Units

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Table B25024

Multifamily Units as Share of Units

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Table B25024

Mobile Homes as Share of Units

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, 2018 ACS One-Year Estimates, Table B25024



Housing Vacancy



Quarterly Vacancy Rate, U.S. & Ohio, by Tenure

Source: Current Population Survey/Housing Vacancy Survey (CPS/HVS), U.S. Census Bureau

Vacant Housing Units by Vacancy Status

Source: American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B25004



Vacancy Rate by Tenure & Region

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables B25003 & B25004

Homeowner Vacancy Rate

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables B25003 & B25004

Rental Vacancy Rate

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables B25003 & B25004



Lead Hazard



Share of Units Built Pre-1950/1980 by Region

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25034

Share of Units Built Pre-1950/1980 by Typology

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25034

Prevalence of Risk of Lead Paint Hazard by Region

Source: 2012–2016 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data, Table 13

EBLLs in Children Under 6 Years by Region

Source: Ohio Public Health Data Warehousing, Ohio Department of Health (based on 2018 data)



Share of Units Built Pre-1950

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25034

Share of Units Built Pre-1980

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25034

Prevalence of Risk of Lead Paint Hazard

Source: 2012–2016 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data, Table 13



Severe Housing Problems


Severe Housing Problems by Race & Ethnicity

Source: 2012–2016 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data, Table 2


Severe Housing Problems

Source: 2012–2016 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data, Table 2

Severe Housing Problems by Typology

Source: 2012–2016 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) data, Table 2


Downloadable Tables

Related Reports


Notes

A 2013 study from The Ohio State University found that the share of homes built before 1950 was the most important predictor of elevated blood lead levels in Ohio children under 6. Those homes predate the earliest laws in the United States restricting the use of lead paint in housing, which were enacted in the 1950s in some cities. Pre-1950 homes are also more likely to have chipped paint or lead-conatminated dust which can be ingested by young children. The use of lead paint in housing was finally banned nationally in 1978 by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. As such homes built between 1950 to 1979 are considered to pose moderate levels of risk to young children; homes built prior to 1950 are considered to be pose a greater risk.

Elevated blood lead levels are defined as having five or more micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (µg/dL) and are tested in children under 6 years. The prevalence rate is the number of children with confirmed elevated blood lead levels divided by the number tested.

Severe housing problems are defined by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to include housing costs exceeding 50% of household income, more than 1.5 occupants per room, incomplete kitchen or incomplete plumbing facilities.

Ohio Regions are defined by the Ohio Development Services Agency at the county level.

Typologies are defined at the census tract level in the OHFA 2018–2019 USR Opportunity Index by the Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity at The Ohio State University. They are based on a combination of road network density, housing density, population density and age of housing.


Data Sources