FY 2021 Housing Needs Assessment Sections:

Executive Summary Table of Contents Homeownership Rental Housing Home Energy & Transportation Housing Insecurity Housing Stock Income & Labor Demographics How Ohio Compares COVID-19

How Ohio Compares

This section benchmarks how Ohio is doing in comparison to other states when it comes to providing affordable and accessible housing. It takes metrics from every other section of the Housing Needs Assessment and looks at how the state stacks up against either Ohio's neighbors or a selection of other states based on the availability of data.


Section Highlights

  • Ohio had the lowest median household debt-to-income ratio (1.13) among neighboring states–and lower than the national ratio (1.39)–making buying a home more attainable for prospective homebuyers.
  • In 2018 Ohio had the most rental units affordable and available to very low-income (VLI) renters–those earning less than 50% of area median income–compared to neighboring states (80 units for every 100 VLI renters).
  • Over a third (37%) of 21-year-olds transitioning out of foster care in Ohio reported experiencing homelessness in the prior two years, the highest share among Ohio's neighbors and a considerably higher likelihood than the national average (29%).
  • In 2018 Black Ohioans were nearly three times likelier to live in poverty than white Ohioans (29% versus 11%), making the poverty gap (18 points) larger than the gaps in all neighboring states, as well as the national gap (12).
  • In 2016 the infant mortality gap between children born to Black and white mothers in Ohio (10 per mille points) was the largest among neighboring states, and larger than the national gap (6). This was due in part to Ohio having the highest Black infant mortality rate in the country (15 deaths per 1,000 live births).

Jump to: Homeownership | Rental Housing | Home Energy & Transportation | Housing Insecurity | Housing Stock | Income & Labor | Demographics


Please be advised that the following maps and data visualizations are provided for informational purposes only. Load times will vary depending on your internet connection speed. To download the data for a specific map or data visualization, first click in the white space of the graphic, click the "Download" button below and then click "Data" in the menu that pops up. You may also access most of the data through the downloadable tables in Excel posted lower down on the page.



Homeownership


Homeownership Gap, White & Black Householders

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B25003A & B25003B

Average FICO® Score

Source: Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) (public data request, based on a random sample from April 2019)

Share of Adults with Student Loan Debt

Source: Debt in America: An Interactive Map, December 2019, Urban Institute (based on 2018 data)



Median Household Debt-to-Income Ratio

Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (based on Q4 2018 data)

Mortgage Loan Denial Rate

Source: Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Mortgage Loan Denial Rate Gap, Black & White

Source: Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau



Rental Housing



Government-Assisted Renters as Share of All Renters

Source: 2015 American Housing Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

Severe Rent Burden

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B25070 & B25106

Affordable & Available Ratio by Income

Source: The Gap: A Shortage of Affordable Homes, March 2020, National Low Income Housing Coalition (based on 2018 data)



Home Energy & Transportation


Household Carbon Footprint from Home Energy Use

Source: CoolClimate Network, University of California Berkeley (public data request, based on 2013 data)

H+T® Affordability Index

Source: H+T® Affordability Index, Center for Neighborhood Technology (based on 2011–2015 data)



Housing Insecurty


Eviction Filing Rate

Source: Supreme Court of Ohio Case Management System; American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B25003; Eviction Lab, Princeton University (all based on 2016 data)

Transitional Age Youth Experiencing Homelessness

Source: 2014–2018 National Youth in Transition Database Youth Outcomes Report, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services



Housing Stock



Change in Housing Stock

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Housing Units by Structure Type

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25024

Housing Vacancy Rate by Tenure

Source: Current Population Survey/Housing Vacancy Survey (CPS/HVS), U.S. Census Bureau (based on 2019 four-quarter averages)


Share of Housing Units Built Pre-1950 & Pre-1980

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Table B25034

Housing Inadequacy Rate

Source: 2015 American Housing Survey, U.S. Census Bureau



Income & Labor




Income Gap Ratio, 80th & 20th Percentiles

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B19080

Income Gap Ratio, White & Black Householders

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B19013A & B10913B

Poverty Rate

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Poverty Rate Gap, Black & White

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B17001A & B17001B



Liquid Asset Poverty Rate

Source: 2020 Prosperity Now Scorecard (based on 2010–2014 data)

Liquid Asset Poverty Rate Gap, Black & White

Source: 2020 Prosperity Now Scorecard (based on 2010–2014 data)

Child Poverty Rate by Age

Source: 2018 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), U.S. Census Bureau

Labor Force Participation Rate

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (based on 2019 annual averages)

Unemployment Rate

Source: Local Area Unemployment Estimates, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (based on 2019 annual averages)



Demographics




Change in Population

Source: Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Median Age

Source: 2018 Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Population by Age Group

Source: 2018 Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Householders 65 & Over & Living Alone

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B11007

Renter Households by Type

''

Source: 2014–2018 American Community Survey (ACS) Five-Year Estimates, Tables B25009 & B25115

People of Color by Race & Ethnicity

Source: 2018 Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau

Foreign Born by World Region of Origin

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Tables B5002 & B05006




Refugee Arrivals per Million

Source: Worldwide Refugee Admissions Processing System, U.S. Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration

Human Trafficking Victimization Rate

Source: 2018 Hotline Statistics, National Human Trafficking Hotline

Disability Prevalence Rate

Source: 2018 American Community Survey (ACS) One-Year Estimates, Table B18101

Inaccessible Housing Units as Share of All Units

Source: 2015 American Housing Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

Opiate Overdose Mortality Rate

Source: Ohio Public Health Data Warehouse, Ohio Department of Health; Drug-Related Overdose Deaths in Pennsylvania, U.S. Drug Enforcement Adminstration Philadelphia Division; Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Population and Housing Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau (all based on 2018 data)

Infant Mortality Rate

Source: Ohio Public Health Data Warehouse, Ohio Department of Health; Period Linked Birth–Infant Death Data Files, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (all based on 2017 death data)

Infant Mortality Gap, Black & White Mothers

Source: Ohio Public Health Data Warehouse, Ohio Department of Health; Period Linked Birth–Infant Death Data Files, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (all based on 2016 death data)


Downloadable Tables

Related Reports


Notes

The FICO® Score is the consumer credit score used by most U.S. banks and credit grantors. It is based on data gathered by third-party consumer credit reporting agencies.

Median student loan debt is among the population with any student loan debt. Median amount of monthly student loan payment is among those borrowers with open accounts (i.e., not deferred or in collections). Percent with student loan debt is the share of adults with a credit bureau record who have any student loan debt, including those with accounts that are open, deferred or in collections.

Household debt data from the Equifax/Federal Reserve Bank of New York Consumer Credit Panel incorporates all types of household debt except student loans. Household income is based on wage data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. figure represents the median of the 50 states plus the District of Columbia.

Mortage loan denial rate is the percentage of total mortgage loan applications denied by lenders. Applications include preapproval requests. Applications approved but not accepted are counted as approved. Applications withdrawn by applicant, files closed for incompleteness and loans purchased by a financial institution are excluded from the analysis.

American Housing Survey data are based on self-reported information.

Severe rent burden is defined as a renter household spending at least 50 percent of household income on gross rent or having no income.

Extremely low-income (ELI) is defined as those with incomes at or below the federal poverty level or 30% of area median income, whichever is greater. Very low-income (VLI) is defined as those with incomes at or below 50% of area median income, including ELI households. Affordability is based on the common standard that households should not spend more than 30% of their income on housing. Rental units are both "affordable and available" to renters in a specific income group if the gross rent meets the 30% affordability threshold and they are either available for rent or occupied by households with incomes at or below the defined income level.

This CoolClimate Network model includes direct emissions from consumption of fossil fuels to heat homes as well as indirect emissions embodied in the production of electricity used to power homes. Electricity is measured in kilowatt hours per year, natural gas is measured in cubic feet per year, and home fuel oil is measured in gallons per year. Carbon footprint is measured in metric tons (or tonnes) of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global climate change.

The H+T® Affordability Index combines the average housing and transportation costs as a share of household income. Housing costs are based on "selected monthly owner costs" and gross rent from 2011-2015 American Community Survey (ACS) (ACS) Five-Year Estimates. These are averaged and weighted by tenure. Transportation costs are defined as the sum of auto ownership costs, auto use costs and transit costs. These are averaged and weighted by auto ownership, auto use and transit use. Auto ownership and transit use are also derived from 2011–2015 ACS Five-Year Estimates; auto use is derived from a place-based model of vehicle miles traveled; auto ownership costs and auto use costs are derived from the 2013 Consumer Expenditure Survey from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; transit use costs are derived from 2015 National Transit Database data from the Federal Transportation Administration. Costs and income are based on a "Regional Typical Household," assuming area median household income, average household size for the region and average number of commuters per household for the region.

The eviction filing rate is the number of new eviction filings per 100 renter-occupied households. In Ohio an eviction is legally referred to as a "forcible entry and detainer" or F.E.D..

Transitional age youth (TAY) are young people between 16 and 24 years of age who are in transition out of state custody or foster care. Based on a five-year cohort. At 17 years of age, respondents reported any experience of homelessness in their lifetime, while 19- and 21-year-old respondents reported experience of homelessness in the past two year. Homelessness is defined as having no regular or adequate place to live.

A 2013 study from The Ohio State University found that the share of homes built before 1950 was the most important predictor of elevated blood lead levels in Ohio children under 6. Those homes predate the earliest laws in the United States restricting the use of lead paint in housing, which were enacted in the 1950s in some cities. Pre-1950 homes are also more likely to have chipped paint or lead-contaminated dust which can be ingested by young children. The use of lead paint in housing was finally banned nationally in 1978 by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. As such homes built between 1950 to 1979 are considered to pose moderate levels of risk to young children; homes built prior to 1950 are considered to be pose a greater risk.

Housing inadequacy is defined by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development as having one or more plumbing, heating, electric, wiring or upkeep deficiencies.

Poverty status can only be determined for individuals in households and therefore the denominator excludes individuals living in group quarters such as college dormitories, correctional facilities and nursing homes.

The liquid asset poverty rate is the share of households without sufficient liquid assets to subsist at the federal poverty level for three months in the absence of income. Liquid assets are assets than can be readily turned into cash, such as interest earnings held in banks, commodities, foreign currencies, and equity in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, IRA, Keogh, 401(k) and other savings accounts. Assets that cannot be readily turned into cash, such as real estate, vehicles and art collections, are considered non-liquid assets.

According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees, refugees are people who have fled their country of origin to escape a war or due to a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, social status, or politics, and have been awarded special protective status. Only a small fraction of the world's refugee population is considered for final resettlement in the United States. The U.S. Department of State then helps match refugees with local resettlement agencies around the country. Refugee arrivals count the number of refugees initially resettled by the State Department and do not reflect secondary migration.

Human trafficking victims include victims and survivors of sex and labor trafficking identified through phone calls, emails and online tip reports received by the National Human Trafficking Hotline.

Housing units can be entered by someone in a wheelchair if it is possible to enter from outside without climbing any steps or stairs.

Opiates, or opioids, include the illegal drug heroin, the synthetic drug fentanyl and pain medications available legally by prescription, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine and morphine. The unintentional opiate overdose mortality rate is the number of deaths per 100,000 population and is a crude rate (i.e., not age-adjusted).

The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths (before the first birthday) per 1,000 live births in the year prior.

World Regions are defined by the U.S. Department of State at the country level.


Data Sources